Python-Day07-图形用户界面和游戏开发

                                                                                  Python-100Day-学习打卡
                                                                                  Author: Seven_0507
                                                                                  Date: 2019-05-22
                                                                                  

                                                                                  在这里插入图片描述

                                                                                  Python图形用户界面和游戏开发

                                                                                  1. tkinter模块

                                                                                  """
                                                                                  使用tkinter创建GUI
                                                                                  - 顶层窗口
                                                                                  - 控件
                                                                                  - 布局
                                                                                  - 事件回调
                                                                                  """
                                                                                  import tkinter
                                                                                  import tkinter.messagebox
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  def main():
                                                                                      # 类属性flag
                                                                                      flag = True
                                                                                  
                                                                                      # 修改标签上的文字
                                                                                      def change_label_text():
                                                                                          nonlocal flag # nonlocal关键字用来在函数或其他作用域中使用外层(非全局)变量
                                                                                          flag = not flag
                                                                                          if flag:
                                                                                              color, msg = ('red', 'Hello, world!')
                                                                                          else:
                                                                                              color, msg = ('blue', 'Goodbye, world!')
                                                                                          label.config(text=msg, fg=color)
                                                                                  
                                                                                      # 确认退出
                                                                                      def confirm_to_quit():
                                                                                          if tkinter.messagebox.askokcancel('温馨提示', '确定要退出吗?'):
                                                                                              top.quit()
                                                                                  
                                                                                      # 创建顶层窗口
                                                                                      top = tkinter.Tk()
                                                                                      # 设置窗口大小
                                                                                      top.geometry('240x160')
                                                                                      # 设置窗口标题
                                                                                      top.title('小游戏')
                                                                                      # 创建标签对象并添加到顶层窗口
                                                                                      label = tkinter.Label(top, text='Hello, world!', font='Arial -32', fg='red')
                                                                                      label.pack(expand=1)
                                                                                      # 创建一个装按钮的容器
                                                                                      panel = tkinter.Frame(top)
                                                                                      # 创建按钮对象 指定添加到哪个容器中 通过command参数绑定事件回调函数
                                                                                      button1 = tkinter.Button(panel, text='修改', command=change_label_text)
                                                                                      button1.pack(side='left')
                                                                                      button2 = tkinter.Button(panel, text='退出', command=confirm_to_quit)
                                                                                      button2.pack(side='right')
                                                                                      panel.pack(side='bottom')
                                                                                      # 开启主事件循环
                                                                                      tkinter.mainloop()
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  if __name__ == '__main__':
                                                                                      main()
                                                                                  
                                                                                  """
                                                                                  使用tkinter创建GUI
                                                                                  - 在窗口上制作动画
                                                                                  """
                                                                                  import tkinter
                                                                                  import time
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  # 播放动画效果的函数
                                                                                  def play_animation():
                                                                                      canvas.move(oval, 2, 2)
                                                                                      canvas.update()
                                                                                      top.after(50, play_animation)
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  x = 10
                                                                                  y = 10
                                                                                  top = tkinter.Tk()
                                                                                  top.geometry('600x600')
                                                                                  top.title('动画效果')
                                                                                  top.resizable(False, False)
                                                                                  top.wm_attributes('-topmost', 1)
                                                                                  canvas = tkinter.Canvas(top, width=600, height=600, bd=0, highlightthickness=0)
                                                                                  canvas.create_rectangle(0, 0, 600, 600, fill='gray')
                                                                                  oval = canvas.create_oval(10, 10, 60, 60, fill='red')
                                                                                  canvas.pack()
                                                                                  top.update()
                                                                                  play_animation()
                                                                                  tkinter.mainloop()
                                                                                  
                                                                                  # 请思考如何让小球碰到屏幕的边界就弹回
                                                                                  # 请思考如何用面向对象的编程思想对上面的代码进行封装
                                                                                  
                                                                                  """
                                                                                  用turtle模块绘图
                                                                                  这是一个非常有趣的模块 它模拟一只乌龟在窗口上爬行的方式来进行绘图
                                                                                  """
                                                                                  import turtle
                                                                                  
                                                                                  turtle.pensize(3)
                                                                                  turtle.penup()
                                                                                  turtle.goto(-180, 150)
                                                                                  turtle.pencolor('red')
                                                                                  turtle.fillcolor('yellow')
                                                                                  turtle.pendown()
                                                                                  turtle.begin_fill()
                                                                                  for _ in range(36):
                                                                                      turtle.forward(200)
                                                                                      turtle.right(170)
                                                                                  turtle.end_fill()
                                                                                  turtle.mainloop()
                                                                                  

                                                                                  2. Pygame进行游戏开发

                                                                                  """
                                                                                  大球吃小球游戏步骤
                                                                                   - 制作游戏窗口
                                                                                   - 在窗口中绘图
                                                                                   - 加载图像
                                                                                   - 实现动画效果
                                                                                   - 碰撞检测
                                                                                  """
                                                                                  from enum import Enum, unique
                                                                                  from math import sqrt
                                                                                  from random import randint
                                                                                  
                                                                                  import pygame
                                                                                  
                                                                                  # 碰撞检测
                                                                                  @unique
                                                                                  class Color(Enum):
                                                                                      """颜色"""
                                                                                  
                                                                                      RED = (255, 0, 0)
                                                                                      GREEN = (0, 255, 0)
                                                                                      BLUE = (0, 0, 255)
                                                                                      BLACK = (0, 0, 0)
                                                                                      WHITE = (255, 255, 255)
                                                                                      GRAY = (242, 242, 242)
                                                                                  
                                                                                      @staticmethod
                                                                                      def random_color():
                                                                                          """获得随机颜色"""
                                                                                          r = randint(0, 255)
                                                                                          g = randint(0, 255)
                                                                                          b = randint(0, 255)
                                                                                          return (r, g, b)
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  class Ball(object):
                                                                                      """球"""
                                                                                  
                                                                                      def __init__(self, x, y, radius, sx, sy, color=Color.RED):
                                                                                          """初始化方法"""
                                                                                          self.x = x
                                                                                          self.y = y
                                                                                          self.radius = radius
                                                                                          self.sx = sx
                                                                                          self.sy = sy
                                                                                          self.color = color
                                                                                          self.alive = True
                                                                                  
                                                                                      def move(self, screen):
                                                                                          """移动"""
                                                                                          self.x += self.sx
                                                                                          self.y += self.sy
                                                                                          if self.x - self.radius <= 0 or self.x + self.radius >= screen.get_width():
                                                                                              self.sx = -self.sx
                                                                                          if self.y - self.radius <= 0 or self.y + self.radius >= screen.get_height():
                                                                                              self.sy = -self.sy
                                                                                  
                                                                                      def eat(self, other):
                                                                                          """吃其他球"""
                                                                                          if self.alive and other.alive and self != other:
                                                                                              dx, dy = self.x - other.x, self.y - other.y
                                                                                              distance = sqrt(dx ** 2 + dy ** 2)
                                                                                              if distance < self.radius + other.radius \
                                                                                                      and self.radius > other.radius:
                                                                                                  other.alive = False
                                                                                                 	self.radius = self.radius + int(other.radius * 0.146)
                                                                                  
                                                                                      def draw(self, screen):
                                                                                          """在窗口上绘制球"""
                                                                                          pygame.draw.circle(screen, self.color,
                                                                                                             (self.x, self.y), self.radius, 0)
                                                                                  
                                                                                  # 事件处理
                                                                                  def main():
                                                                                      # 定义用来装所有球的容器
                                                                                      balls = []
                                                                                      # 初始化导入的pygame中的模块
                                                                                      pygame.init()
                                                                                      # 初始化用于显示的窗口并设置窗口尺寸
                                                                                      screen = pygame.display.set_mode((800, 600))
                                                                                      print(screen.get_width())
                                                                                      print(screen.get_height())
                                                                                      # 设置当前窗口的标题
                                                                                      pygame.display.set_caption('大球吃小球')
                                                                                      # 定义变量来表示小球在屏幕上的位置
                                                                                      x, y = 50, 50
                                                                                      running = True
                                                                                      # 开启一个事件循环处理发生的事件
                                                                                      while running:
                                                                                          # 从消息队列中获取事件并对事件进行处理
                                                                                          for event in pygame.event.get():
                                                                                              if event.type == pygame.QUIT:
                                                                                                  running = False
                                                                                              if event.type == pygame.MOUSEBUTTONDOWN and event.button == 1:
                                                                                                  x, y = event.pos
                                                                                                  radius = randint(10, 100)
                                                                                                  sx, sy = randint(-10, 10), randint(-10, 10)
                                                                                                  color = Color.random_color()
                                                                                                  ball = Ball(x, y, radius, sx, sy, color)
                                                                                                  balls.append(ball)
                                                                                          screen.fill((255, 255, 255))
                                                                                          for ball in balls:
                                                                                              if ball.alive:
                                                                                                  ball.draw(screen)
                                                                                              else:
                                                                                                  balls.remove(ball)
                                                                                          pygame.display.flip()
                                                                                          # 每隔50毫秒就改变小球的位置再刷新窗口
                                                                                          pygame.time.delay(50)
                                                                                          for ball in balls:
                                                                                              ball.move(screen)
                                                                                              for other in balls:
                                                                                                  ball.eat(other)
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  if __name__ == '__main__':
                                                                                      main()
                                                                                  
                                                                                  pygame 1.9.6
                                                                                  Hello from the pygame community. https://www.pygame.org/contribute.html
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